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King Arthur is a legendary British king who appears in a series of stories and medieval romances as the leader of a knightly fellowship called the Round Table.

Stories about King Arthur became popular before the 11th century. Today the character of King Arthur appears in comic books, novels, television shows, and films.

Legends disagree on how Arthur became king, though most involve his famous sword, Excalibur. Some involve Arthur fulfilling a prophecy by pulling Excalibur from a stone, whereas others say the sword was given to him by a magical woman in a lake.

King Arthur was married to Guinevere in most legends. Assumptions that a historical Arthur led Welsh resistance to the West Saxon advance from the middle Thames are based on a conflation of two early writers, the religious polemicist Gildas and the historian Nennius , and on the Annales Cambriae of the late 10th century.

The 9th-century Historia Brittonum , traditionally attributed to Nennius , records 12 battles fought by Arthur against the Saxons, culminating in a victory at Mons Badonicus.

The Arthurian section of this work, however, is from an undetermined source, possibly a poetic text. Early Welsh literature quickly made Arthur into a king of wonders and marvels.

King Arthur. Malory based his book—originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table —on the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories.

The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Although Malory's English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian romances — established since Geoffrey of Monmouth's time — and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain.

So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval "chronicle tradition", to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians.

In the early 19th century, medievalism , Romanticism , and the Gothic Revival reawakened interest in Arthur and the medieval romances.

A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals embodied in the "Arthur of romance". This renewed interest first made itself felt in , when Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur was reprinted for the first time since Tennyson's Arthurian work reached its peak of popularity with Idylls of the King , however, which reworked the entire narrative of Arthur's life for the Victorian era.

It was first published in and sold 10, copies within the first week. This interest in the "Arthur of romance" and his associated stories continued through the 19th century and into the 20th, and influenced poets such as William Morris and Pre-Raphaelite artists including Edward Burne-Jones.

While Tom maintained his small stature and remained a figure of comic relief, his story now included more elements from the medieval Arthurian romances and Arthur is treated more seriously and historically in these new versions.

By the end of the 19th century, it was confined mainly to Pre-Raphaelite imitators, [] and it could not avoid being affected by World War I , which damaged the reputation of chivalry and thus interest in its medieval manifestations and Arthur as chivalric role model.

In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T.

Bradley's tale, for example, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials, [] and American authors often rework the story of Arthur to be more consistent with values such as equality and democracy.

The romance Arthur has become popular in film and theatre as well. White's novel was adapted into the Lerner and Loewe stage musical Camelot and Walt Disney 's animated film The Sword in the Stone ; Camelot , with its focus on the love of Lancelot and Guinevere and the cuckolding of Arthur, was itself made into a film of the same name in Retellings and reimaginings of the romance tradition are not the only important aspect of the modern legend of King Arthur.

Attempts to portray Arthur as a genuine historical figure of c. As Taylor and Brewer have noted, this return to the medieval "chronicle tradition" of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Historia Brittonum is a recent trend which became dominant in Arthurian literature in the years following the outbreak of the Second World War , when Arthur's legendary resistance to Germanic enemies struck a chord in Britain.

Arthur has also been used as a model for modern-day behaviour. In the s, the Order of the Fellowship of the Knights of the Round Table was formed in Britain to promote Christian ideals and Arthurian notions of medieval chivalry.

As Norris J. Lacy has observed, "The popular notion of Arthur appears to be limited, not surprisingly, to a few motifs and names, but there can be no doubt of the extent to which a legend born many centuries ago is profoundly embedded in modern culture at every level.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries. For other uses, see Arthur Pendragon disambiguation and King Arthur disambiguation.

Main article: Historicity of King Arthur. Main article: Arthur. Wyeth 's title page illustration for The Boy's King Arthur See also: List of works based on Arthurian legends.

England portal History portal Cornwall portal. Y Gododdin cannot be dated precisely: it describes 6th-century events and contains 9th- or 10th-century spelling, but the surviving copy is 13th-century.

See Rahtz and Carey VII, n. Studien zur römischen Namengebung. Helsinki , p. On his possessions and wife, see also Ford See Haycock , pp.

On the Glastonbury tale and its Otherworldly antecedents, see Sims-Williams , pp. See further, Roberts b and Roberts New York: Overlook Duckworth See List of books about King Arthur.

Bromwich, Rachel; Evans, D. Simon , Culhwch and Olwen. Brooke, Christopher N. Budgey, A. Bullock-Davies, C. Burgess, Glyn S. Burns, E.

Carley, J. Charles-Edwards, Thomas M. Coe, John B. Crick, Julia C. Dumville, D. Field, P. Ford, P. Gamerschlag, K. Beobachtungen zu dreihundertfünfzig Jahren gemeinsamer Geschichte", Anglia in German : — EBSCO subscription required.

Haycock, M. Harty, Kevin J. Higham, N. Jones, Gwyn; Jones, Thomas, eds. Kibler, William; Carroll, Carleton W.

Koch, John T. For example, the film's portrayal of a boorish and lusty Bors, the father of many children, differs greatly from his namesake whose purity and celibacy allowed him to witness the Holy Grail according to legend.

The cinematic portrayal of Bors is therefore much closer to the traditional depiction of Sir Kay than his legendary namesake. The cinematic portrayal of Guinevere as a Celtic warrior who joins Arthur's knights in battle is a drastic alteration from the demure " damsel in distress " of courtly romance.

Despite the film's alleged historical angle, Merlin was not originally part of the legends. It is generally agreed that he is based on two figures— Myrddin Wyllt Myrddin the Wild , and Aurelius Ambrosius, a highly fictionalised version of the historical war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus.

The former had nothing to do with Arthur and flourished after the Arthurian period. The composite Merlin was created by Geoffrey of Monmouth. In the film, Arthur's father is a Roman general from the Imperial Roman army and his mother is a Celtic woman.

In the historical notes of the legend, Arthur's father is Uther Pendragon , a famous Romano-British commander and one of Britain's earlier kings, and his mother is Igraine , a beautiful young woman who was once the wife of Gorlois, the Duke of Cornwall and one of Uther's loyal subjects.

Arthur's knights are described differently in the film and the legend. A round table is briefly present in the movie, where Arthur's knights regularly meet in equality, and which flummoxes the bishop Germanus when he cannot find a place at the table to distinguish his stature.

Dagonet, a self-sacrificing warrior in the film, has Arthur's court jester as his namesake. Also in the film, Lancelot fights using two swords.

This may be a reference to the ill-fated Sir Balin , the "Knight with Two Swords", but this epithet refers to his cursed sword rather than his fighting style.

Tristan has a pet hawk. In Welsh legends, a figure named Gwalchmai is commonly considered identical with Gawain both are nephews of Arthur ; a popular though unlikely proposed meaning of his name is "hawk of May".

The role of traitor, typically ascribed to Mordred , is given a smaller part in the form of a young British scout, played by Alan Devine , who betrays his people to the Saxons.

The character is unnamed, but called "British Scout" in the credits. Tristan kills the traitor with an arrow from the other side of Hadrian's Wall during the climactic battle.

Italian historian and novelist Valerio Massimo Manfredi claimed that the movie was almost a plagiarism of his novel The Last Legion , due to several similarities between the two works.

Indeed, the events of the movie suggest a theory that is largely different from the one on which Manfredi's novel is based, in which Artorius Castus isn't even mentioned, and neither is the Sarmatian auxiliary army.

According to Manfredi, King Arthur' s release and its commercial failure were among the main causes of the problems related to the movie adaptation of his novel, which was in development hell until its release in Despite the film's supposedly historically grounded approach, much artistic licence is taken regarding historical figures, peoples, events, religion, wardrobe, and weaponry.

The film places the story of Arthur not in its better-known medieval setting, but in the still plausible earlier times of antiquity , the early dawn of the Middle Ages — as did the earliest versions of the Arthur story.

It would appear that the Arthur depicted in the film is based most closely upon Ambrosius Aurelianus , the Romano-Briton who fought against the Saxons in the 5th century, and was probably the leader of the Romano-British at the Battle of Mons Badonicus Mount Badon.

Nevertheless, Arthur's full name in the film is Artorius Castus , referring to Lucius Artorius Castus , a historical Roman active in Britain in the 2nd or 3rd century.

The film is loosely based on the "Sarmatian hypothesis", formulated by C. Scott Littleton and Ann C. Thomas in , which holds that the Arthurian legend has a historical nucleus in the Sarmatian heavy cavalry troops stationed in Britain, [8] referencing the similarities between the legends of king Arthur and the older legends of Nartian king Batraz.

In the 2nd century, 5, Iazyges were transported there as auxiliaries during the Marcomannic Wars. In the film, the Roman legions withdraw from Britain in AD ; in reality, this was completed in the year , nearly 60 years before.

Similarly, the opening text dictates that " King Arthur and his Knights rose from a real hero who lived [ The film, however, is set in The current Roman Emperor in the film's time would have been Anthemius.

The Roman family which Arthur rescues lives north of Hadrian's Wall. This mission would be unlikely because the Wall represented the extent of Roman rule in Britain, except for brief periods of occupation during the 2nd century AD during which time they got as far north as Falkirk in the Central Lowlands of Scotland , where pieces of the Antonine Wall are still visible; particularly in Callendar Park.

At times there were Roman forts in Cawdor as far north as Inverness. The Picts are called " Woads ". The battle is thought to have been fought sometime between and The Saxons are shown attacking Hadrian's Wall from the north.

By the Saxons were already occupying parts of Britain far south of the wall. This scene references the long-held belief that the Anglo-Saxons eradicated the Romano-Britons from the eastern part of the island.

This contention, largely based on linguistic evidence, has been challenged by modern genetic analysis, which suggests extensive mixing between Anglo-Saxon and Briton populations.

Some historians and fiction writers [18] have even suggested that Cerdic himself was at least part Briton. His name "Cerdic" has been argued to be a Germanised form of a Celtic name such as Ceretic or Caradoc.

Historically, Sarmatians were armoured in the manner of cataphracts full-length coats of scale armour ; the film's Sarmatians are armoured with a mishmash of pseudo-Roman, Turkish, Mongol and Hunnic designs.

The Saxons historically used bows to a limited extent and spears instead of crossbows during the period.

Though there is evidence for the use of some form of crossbows by Romans calling them manuballistae and, some claim, the Picts, [7] the weapon was still not widely used in England until much later.

Similarly, the Woads use a trebuchet -like weapon to hurl flaming missiles at the Saxons, though the trebuchet was not re-introduced to Britain until the Siege of Dover in Roman soldiers displayed in the film are depicted as legionaries with 2nd century armour.

By AD , legionaries were no longer in use and comitatenses were the new replacements. The real Pelagius was a monk, not a bishop. He engaged Saint Augustine of Hippo in a debate on the theological issue of the relationship between grace and free will.

When Arthur informs the people that "You

Am Ende einer Aktion erwartet dem Spieler ein akustisches Signal, Hobiger ihm anzeigt, ob er eine weitere Aktion probieren oder weiterziehen darf oder ob der nächste Spieler am Zug ist. Die Elektronik. King Arthur. Wenn Sie Neukunde sind, können Sie hier ein Kundenkonto eröffnen. Ich habe dieses Spiel auch auf der Wiener Spielemesse gespielt. Immer nur die Spielfigur zu einem Feld ziehen und dann abwarten, was die quäkike Stimme bereit hält ist sehr schnell ermüdend und langweillig. Nimmt man das Spielfeld sehr genau unter die Lupe, entdeckt man elektronische Verbindungen zwischen den einzelnen Orten. Diese sind eindeutig auch die Zielgruppe. Kommt es zu einem Kampf, bestimmt Merlin, welche Zahl mindestens erwürfelt werden Spiele Hi-Lo Privee - Video Slots Online, um den Kampf zu gewinnen. YES or kNOw. Durch das Abspeichern des Spielstandes kann jederzeit eine Partie unterbrochen und bei späterer Gelegenheit wieder aufgenommen werden. Angebotsformat Alle ansehen. The legend possibly originated either in Wales or in those parts of northern Britain inhabited by Brythonic -speaking Celts. Several historical figures have been proposed as the Cryptogold SeriГ¶s for Arthur, ranging from Lucius Artorius Castusa Roman officer who served in Britain in the 2nd or 3rd century, [21] to sub-Roman British rulers such Beste Spielothek in Grauswitz finden Riotamus[22] Ambrosius Aurelianus[23] Owain Ddantgwyn[24] and Athrwys ap Meurig. In Welsh Lottery Uk the name Spiel King Arthur always spelled Arthur and is Cbspiele.De rhymed with words ending Beste Spielothek in ZГјndorf finden -ur —never words ending in -wr —which confirms that the Coms element cannot be [g]wr "man". On the other, his warband in the earliest sources includes former pagan gods, and his wife and his possessions are clearly Otherworldly in origin. The night before the battle, he and Guinevere make love and on the following day, Arthur meets Cerdic under a white flag of parlay, vowing to kill him. Tristan kills the traitor with an arrow from the other side of Hadrian's Wall during the climactic battle.

Spiel King Arthur Video

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It is not certain how these legends originated or whether the figure of Arthur was based on a historical person. The legend possibly originated either in Wales or in those parts of northern Britain inhabited by Brythonic -speaking Celts.

For a fuller treatment of the stories about King Arthur, see also Arthurian legend. King Arthur is a legendary British king who appears in a series of stories and medieval romances as the leader of a knightly fellowship called the Round Table.

Stories about King Arthur became popular before the 11th century. Today the character of King Arthur appears in comic books, novels, television shows, and films.

Legends disagree on how Arthur became king, though most involve his famous sword, Excalibur. Some involve Arthur fulfilling a prophecy by pulling Excalibur from a stone, whereas others say the sword was given to him by a magical woman in a lake.

King Arthur was married to Guinevere in most legends. Assumptions that a historical Arthur led Welsh resistance to the West Saxon advance from the middle Thames are based on a conflation of two early writers, the religious polemicist Gildas and the historian Nennius , and on the Annales Cambriae of the late 10th century.

The 9th-century Historia Brittonum , traditionally attributed to Nennius , records 12 battles fought by Arthur against the Saxons, culminating in a victory at Mons Badonicus.

The Arthurian section of this work, however, is from an undetermined source, possibly a poetic text.

Early Welsh literature quickly made Arthur into a king of wonders and marvels. King Arthur. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. The popularity of Geoffrey's Historia and its other derivative works such as Wace 's Roman de Brut gave rise to a significant numbers of new Arthurian works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France.

There is clear evidence that Arthur and Arthurian tales were familiar on the Continent before Geoffrey's work became widely known see for example, the Modena Archivolt , [74] and "Celtic" names and stories not found in Geoffrey's Historia appear in the Arthurian romances.

Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined. So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the Mort Artu , whilst in Yvain, the Knight of the Lion , he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap.

Lacy has observed, whatever his faults and frailties may be in these Arthurian romances, "his prestige is never—or almost never—compromised by his personal weaknesses However, the most significant for the development of the Arthurian legend are Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart , which introduces Lancelot and his adulterous relationship with Arthur's queen Guinevere , extending and popularising the recurring theme of Arthur as a cuckold , and Perceval, the Story of the Grail , which introduces the Holy Grail and the Fisher King and which again sees Arthur having a much reduced role.

Perceval , although unfinished, was particularly popular: four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half century, with the notion of the Grail and its quest being developed by other writers such as Robert de Boron , a fact that helped accelerate the decline of Arthur in continental romance.

Up to c. The most significant of these 13th-century prose romances was the Vulgate Cycle also known as the Lancelot-Grail Cycle , a series of five Middle French prose works written in the first half of that century.

The cycle continued the trend towards reducing the role played by Arthur in his own legend, partly through the introduction of the character of Galahad and an expansion of the role of Merlin.

During this period, Arthur was made one of the Nine Worthies , a group of three pagan, three Jewish and three Christian exemplars of chivalry.

The Worthies were first listed in Jacques de Longuyon 's Voeux du Paon in , and subsequently became a common subject in literature and art.

The development of the medieval Arthurian cycle and the character of the "Arthur of romance" culminated in Le Morte d'Arthur , Thomas Malory 's retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century.

Malory based his book—originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table —on the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories.

The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Although Malory's English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian romances — established since Geoffrey of Monmouth's time — and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain.

So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval "chronicle tradition", to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians.

In the early 19th century, medievalism , Romanticism , and the Gothic Revival reawakened interest in Arthur and the medieval romances.

A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals embodied in the "Arthur of romance". This renewed interest first made itself felt in , when Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur was reprinted for the first time since Tennyson's Arthurian work reached its peak of popularity with Idylls of the King , however, which reworked the entire narrative of Arthur's life for the Victorian era.

It was first published in and sold 10, copies within the first week. This interest in the "Arthur of romance" and his associated stories continued through the 19th century and into the 20th, and influenced poets such as William Morris and Pre-Raphaelite artists including Edward Burne-Jones.

While Tom maintained his small stature and remained a figure of comic relief, his story now included more elements from the medieval Arthurian romances and Arthur is treated more seriously and historically in these new versions.

By the end of the 19th century, it was confined mainly to Pre-Raphaelite imitators, [] and it could not avoid being affected by World War I , which damaged the reputation of chivalry and thus interest in its medieval manifestations and Arthur as chivalric role model.

In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T.

Bradley's tale, for example, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials, [] and American authors often rework the story of Arthur to be more consistent with values such as equality and democracy.

The romance Arthur has become popular in film and theatre as well. White's novel was adapted into the Lerner and Loewe stage musical Camelot and Walt Disney 's animated film The Sword in the Stone ; Camelot , with its focus on the love of Lancelot and Guinevere and the cuckolding of Arthur, was itself made into a film of the same name in Retellings and reimaginings of the romance tradition are not the only important aspect of the modern legend of King Arthur.

Attempts to portray Arthur as a genuine historical figure of c. As Taylor and Brewer have noted, this return to the medieval "chronicle tradition" of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Historia Brittonum is a recent trend which became dominant in Arthurian literature in the years following the outbreak of the Second World War , when Arthur's legendary resistance to Germanic enemies struck a chord in Britain.

Arthur has also been used as a model for modern-day behaviour. In the s, the Order of the Fellowship of the Knights of the Round Table was formed in Britain to promote Christian ideals and Arthurian notions of medieval chivalry.

As Norris J. Lacy has observed, "The popular notion of Arthur appears to be limited, not surprisingly, to a few motifs and names, but there can be no doubt of the extent to which a legend born many centuries ago is profoundly embedded in modern culture at every level.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries.

For other uses, see Arthur Pendragon disambiguation and King Arthur disambiguation. Main article: Historicity of King Arthur.

Main article: Arthur. Wyeth 's title page illustration for The Boy's King Arthur See also: List of works based on Arthurian legends.

England portal History portal Cornwall portal. Y Gododdin cannot be dated precisely: it describes 6th-century events and contains 9th- or 10th-century spelling, but the surviving copy is 13th-century.

See Rahtz and Carey VII, n. Studien zur römischen Namengebung. Helsinki , p. On his possessions and wife, see also Ford See Haycock , pp.

On the Glastonbury tale and its Otherworldly antecedents, see Sims-Williams , pp. See further, Roberts b and Roberts New York: Overlook Duckworth See List of books about King Arthur.

Bromwich, Rachel; Evans, D. Simon , Culhwch and Olwen. Brooke, Christopher N. Budgey, A. Bullock-Davies, C.

Burgess, Glyn S. Burns, E. Carley, J. Charles-Edwards, Thomas M. Coe, John B. Crick, Julia C. Dumville, D. Field, P. Ford, P.

Gamerschlag, K. Beobachtungen zu dreihundertfünfzig Jahren gemeinsamer Geschichte", Anglia in German : — EBSCO subscription required. Haycock, M.

Harty, Kevin J. Higham, N. Jones, Gwyn; Jones, Thomas, eds. Kibler, William; Carroll, Carleton W. Koch, John T. Lacy, Norris J.

Lagorio, V. Lanier, Sidney, ed. Littleton, C. Scott; Malcor, Linda A. JSTOR subscription required. Mancoff, Debra N. Myres, J. Padel, O.

Potwin, L. Reno, Frank D. Roach, William, ed. Roberts, Brynley F. Rosenberg, John D. Smith, C. Staines, D. Stokstad, M. Thompson, R. Thorpe, Lewis, ed.

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